La muséographie allemande au XVIIIe s. : comment Neickel et Kanold présentent en 1727 leur inventaire des collections européennes.


1 Introduction

mapping cur image 1

Figure 1

This article is about one 492-page book that was published in Leipzig and Breslau in 1727.[1] It is written in German, not Latin, and its translated English title is “Museographia or Instruction to a Fair Notion and Useful Installment of Museums or Curiosity Cabinets.” The book contains descriptions of existing and former curiosity cabinets and libraries in Europe, listed alphabetically according to the town in which they are found. I read this book as a dialogue between two men. One, the author, Hamburg merchant Kaspar Friedrich Jencquel, or, with Pseudonym, Caspar Friedrich Neickelius, has carefully gathered a list of more than a hundred containers or boxes, as he calls them, “Behältnisse”, cabinets or musei, in which different collections of treasure are or have been shown. He organized his description of these musei, his “museographia” in four parts. His four parts are “curiosity cabinets, still existing”, former curiosity cabinets, libraries as collections of books, and general notes. The first three parts contain lists of cabinets or libraries; the fourth part gives advice on how to install your own cabinet, a kind of culmination and theoretical peak of the first three parts.

The second person involved in this endeavor, the commentator, was the town physician of Breslau and scholar of the plague, Johann Kanold. We know much more about him than we know about Jencquel, because Kanold was not only an author in his own right, and edited a journal that brought to light “curious and useful notes in natural and art history”, but he also has a biographical entry in Kestner’s dictionary of scholars of medicine, published not long after his death, in 1740 (Kestner, Med. Gelehrtenlexikon, Jena 1740, p. 439). Kanold lived from 1679 until his death in 1729 mostly in Breslau, the former capital of Silesia, the city now known as Wroclaw. According to Kanolds very revealing preface in the published book, the Breslau and Leipzig publisher Hubert had contacted Kanold, asking him to review and augment Jencquel’s manuscript. Kanold makes very clear in his preface who the expert is: he calls the author an illiterate and dilettant, alludes to him being a merchant, and states that Neickelius has never even visited the places he refers to. Kanold reveals that Neickelius had confessed to him that he had read 128 books to write this one, and Kanold, in order to ‘perfect’ a flawed study, has added scholarly footnotes with bibliographical information, where the author had not. Kanold also added more cabinets and libraries both at the end of each alphabetical letter, and at the end of the first three chapters. In short, Kanold was a fierce critic of the author, trying to set the perspective right about expertise, and inserting what he thought would make the book more readable according to academic standards.

Almost every page contains Kanold’s written comments. One page of this contested collaboration looks like figure 2, on the left, another like figure 2, on the right (red emphases A.G.).

mapping cur fig 2

Figure 2

In both cases, Jencquel’s text is located in the main section, while the footnotes beneath the divider are by Kanold. In the first example, Jencquel writes about the French treasure-cabinet at Amboise with the following words:


“In the regal castle at Amboise, the visitor finds among other oddities that are shown thereat an incredibly big deer antler, 18 feet long, with 22 antler points, weighing 6 centner [300 kg].”


Without sparing Jencquel, Kanold corrects this statement meticulously in the footnote: “This calculation is too large. The antler’s weight is only 40 pounds, according to the book Beschreibung des Königreichs Frankreich, p. 779 (edited Frankfurt and Leipzig 1689. 12)“.

In the second example, we see the end of the letter H and the beginning of the letter I. While Jencquel already goes on with descriptions of cabinets in Jena, Kanold adds in the large footnote area towns, starting with H, with curiosity cabinets that he thought Jencquel had missed. One of them is the Prussian town Halle on the Saale, where Kanold had studied medicine at University. Kanold mentioned foremost the cabinet of the councilor Hoffmann, and recalled some entertaining anecdotes that show his familiarity with this collector and his collection. In short Kanold both corrects and supplements Jencquels account.


In my article, I want to ask and answer the following question: How does this odd couple map out curiosity cabinets in Europe? Beyond a mere description, I want to give my article an analytic twist. Are there any classifications that the author and his corrector build up to describe their findings in a way that 18th century scholars would have called „scientific“, or in their words „literate“? Our way passes the spatial, geographic, map of the ideal dilettant or literate visitor and turns to another map with a different analytic function, the hierarchical, taxonomic map, such as Carolus Linneus and many before him drew for the field of natural history. I will show first, how the museums are grouped into specific show-cases; second, which curiosities belong to which group of displayed knowledge, and third, what are the criteria for a find being important. I will compare the text with the 1707 publication of Paul Jacob Marperger, a Saxon mercantilist, on curiosity cabinets, in a collected volume entitled „The Opened Chevalier’s Place… (Der Geöffnete Ritter-Platz…)“.


2 The organization of the book

mapping cur fig 3

Figure 3: Light blue: Wroclaw (Breslau) and Leipzig, where the book was published. Yellow: Jencquel’s list of cabinets of curiosities (out of chapter 1) with more than three published pages: Florence, Hamburg, Leiden, Paris, Rome, Venice, Vienna.

Red: Jencquel’s list of libraries (out of chapter 3) with more than three published pages: Wroclaw (Breslau), Leipzig, London, Paris, Vienna.


mapping cur fig 4

Figure 4: Figure 3 plus Dark blue: Kanold’s additions, where he writes more than three pages in the publication about one town: Franckfurt am Mayn, Nuernberg, Ulm (curiosity cabinets) and Copenhagen, Erfurt, and Jena (libraries).


My argument that the text contains two different hierarchical readings, one by Jencquel, the other by Kanold, rests on the organization and scope of the book itself. Both authors have different intentions with their mapping. The merchant amateur is keen on spreading examples and providing easy tools to enable anyone „with a philosophic mind“, as he calls it, to build their own curiosity cabinet, rarity chamber or museum, as he calls them. The physician, on the other hand, wants to give an expert and first-hand account of which cabinets contain interesting samples of nature and art. He uses his correspondence with cabinet owners and fellow physicians to give up to the minute information, and legitimizes the book academically by setting footnotes and adding his correspondence network.

I have fitted the quantitatively longest entries of the first and the third chapters on existing curiosity cabinets and existing libraries into a map of Europe, to show the spatial reach of Jencquel’s undertaking. Of his 110 entries in chapter one, Jencquel dedicates three published pages or more to curiosity cabinets in Florence, Hamburg, Leiden, Paris, Rome, Vienna, and Venice. Hamburg has a special status, because the author is very enthusiastic about his home town, giving almost a guided tour around its architectonical and historically important buildings, such as churches, which contained treasures. Jencquel’s entries of three pages or more for towns with libraries in chapter three overlap with chapter one twice, by talking about Paris and Vienna. Otherwise, he gives the largest spaces to Breslau, Leipzig, and London. The total number of towns and regions with libraries mentions is 185.

Kanold, in his turn, adds an appendix in both cases. His appendices contain few very detailed inventories. For curiosity cabinets, he writes three published pages or more on Frankfurt on Main, Nürnberg, and Ulm, out of added information in 16 towns in the appendix, and 34 in the footnotes. In the case of libraries, he writes three or more pages for three towns, Copenhagen, Erfurt, and Jena, out of added information in 18 towns.

Kanold’s most spacious additions are listed inventories which he received mostly from his correspondence partners all over Germany, whereas Jencquel had tried to fit most European centres into his map, with overviews about cabinets and little narratives about the most important rarities therein.



3 The hierarchical tables

Jencquel coins a very distinct vocabulary for his ideal visitor, whom he names „the curious“ and for what the curious is interested to visit, „rarities“. Both terms have a clear meaning and a long history among collectors: the curious loves what he or she is doing, and he feels aesthetic pleasure in seeing something rare, out of the usual. For Jencquel, organization of the chamber according to natural scientific rules is not important. For example, he does not have a problem with stating, that the Florence Palazzo Vecchio has a sword in the armory and a sword in room five. He connects rarity, beauty, and commercial value of the objects in display. In his last chapter, where he tells his reader more about his terminology, he describes rarity in the following way (p. 407):


mapping cur fig 5a

mapping cur fig 5b

Figure 5, above: Jencquel; below: Kanold.


“A rarity, however, is called 1) what of all three realms of nature is very sparse and seldom found in our regions, or what has been collected in far away lands, and 3) [sic] what has been drawn up and manufactured by the hands of an artistic master. Both have in addition their special observations, because for example the less this or that piece of nature comes into our sight, and especially the other-natural or monstrous creatures, that is when they have rareness and also an externally magnificent look, as a diamond, carbuncle etc. the same also with the artificial or artistic things, the harder or softer the material is, for example, pictures carved in solid rocks, or in tender rice or barley corns; the bigger and more subtle for example a colossus or a cherry pit with about 180 faces of men etc., the higher rises the esteem and rarity of every object.”


Kanold the physician adopts a very different taxonomy. With the help of inventories and correspondence, he guides the reader to discover novel objects and to explore their significance. For example, he writes in an annotation to Jencquel’s entry for the Netherlandish university town „Leiden“ that the collections of the physician Albini in Leiden contained a high quantity of the root „Ginseng“. Kanold goes on to say that Albini had received this large amount from the King of Prussia to experiment with the powers of the plant. Albini, Kanold write, had discovered that there was not more in it than what he noticed by chewing it. The powers of Ginseng thus, according to Albini, were comparable to, and I cite Kanold, „our limp turnips“. (p. 62)

mapping cur fig 6

Figure 6

Although Kanold does not say anything against the amateur as a visitor of curiosity cabinets, and even helps to expand the number of potential visitors by contributing to a book written in German, when it comes to explaining objects he has a sense of an expert culture, or as Michael Hagner in the book The Sciences in Enlightened Europe (1999, p. 176) puts it, a connoisseur culture, which he sees as exploratory – seeking knowledge connected to an idea of the established and material order of things in nature and culture. Unlike another German contemporary, the educator Paul Jacob Marperger, who had already published a manual on how to build a curiosity cabinet in 1707, Kanold did not narrow down the circle of experts to those who had studied physics. Marperger, who had a general education in view, thought that people with an educational background in physics would be best suited as curators of rich men’s and royal cabinets, because they would be able to organize those cabinets correctly, show them to interested people, and give public lectures on them at least twice a week. On the contrary, Kanold included in his broadly defined category of the „literate“ all people with a university education in the arts, and presented as a most distinguishing sign their knowledge of Latin. He did not talk about a professional class of curators, at all. His correspondence network shows that possessors of curiosity cabinets included court counsellors, town secretaries, church ministers, librarians, the nobility, merchants, physicians, teachers and apothecaries.



4 Conclusion

What can we conclude of this? First: All three authors have different ideas about who knows about or who should be responsible for curiosity cabinets. Marperger digs the deepest ditch between the physicist as educator and the public, and puts him on the highest pedestal, whereas Jencquel maintains that everybody can make a curiosity cabinet. He has a more entrepreneurial attitude about this. He says that with a good manual and with good background knowledge, everybody may arrange a cabinet as they wish. One should not be narrowminded about what to display; the most important criterion is that an object is rare, and it is easy to find out if something is rare: rare is what is not easily found in the region where you live in. Kanold the physician, with his own scientific research and his interest in new findings, looks not so much at the container or cabinet as a whole, but towards the single object. It is not so much rarity he is interested in as a certain novelty of the finding when seen in a scientific context. So we have rarity, we have novelty, and we have order in the case of the educator – rarity, novelty, order.

We also have men from three different social groups, the physician, the merchant and the educator, talking about the same thing from different perspectives. Are we seeing here something emerging – for example a closeness or openness of the different university faculties, which would make Kanold the most conservative, the one who sees the disciplines still all together, whereas the educator Marperger is the most novel, because he sees a gap between the sciences, between those who know physics, and the rest of the world. And finally, the merchant belongs to a rising class in society, a class that comes with its own ideas and interests, and wants to pursue them. The groups which he represents also have a certain idea of what they do and do not need, and rarity seems to be one of their most important desires. The analysis of Jencquel’s book shows that questions originating in the materiality of object collections, their visitors and their expected taxonomies may lead to discussions of a larger context of social change in, what we need to define, as a new knowledge society.



5 Bibliography

Primary Sources

Sammlung von Natur- und Medicin- wie auch hierzu gehörigen Kunst- und Literatur-Geschichten so sich von 1717-26 in Schlesien und anderen Orten begeben … und als Versuch ans Licht gestellet / [Joh. Kanold] [1.1717(1718) – 38.1726(1730); Breslau : Hubert [1718-1720]].


Bolton, p.510, #4197 gives the title statement as Sammlung von Natur und Medicin. Wie auch hierzu gehörigen Kunst- und Literatur-Geschichten so sich Anno 17– in Schlesien und anderen Ländern begeben und ans Licht gestellet von einigen Bresslauischen Medicis.
Zeitschriftendatenbank (ZDB) indicates that this title was supplemented by Curieuse und nutzbare Anmerckungen von Natur- und Kunst-Geschichten : durch eigene Erfahrung und aus vielerley Correspondenz gesammlet / von Johanne Kanold [1.1726 – 4.1729[?]] and was continued by Miscellanea physico-medico-mathematica : oder angenehme, curieuse und nützliche Nachrichten von Physical- u. Medicinischen, auch dahin gehörigen Kunst- und Literatur-Geschichten, welche in Teutschland und andern Reichen sich zugetragen haben oder bekannt worden sind [1727(1731) – 1730(1734)[?]]
Bolton, p.510, #4197a makes it clear that this latter title was edited by A. E. Büchner and others.


Büchner, Georg Heinrich. 1723. Ausführliche Nachricht von der Würckung, innerlichen Structur und Beschaffenheit der Feuer-löschenden Machine. In: Sammlung von Natur- und Medicin- wie auch hierzu gehörigen Kunst- und Literatur-Geschichten so sich von 1717-26 in Schlesien und anderen Orten begeben … und als Versuch ans Licht gestellet, Bd. 24 (1723), 569-582


Lisle, Guillaume de (1675-1726). 1742. Atlas nouveau, contenant toutes les parties su Monde, ou sont exactement remarquees les empires, monarchies, royaumes, etats, republiques, &c. Par Guillaume de l’Isle. Premier Geographe de sa Majeste. A Amsterdam, Chez Jean Covens & Corneille Mortier, sur le Vygendam. (illus. on title page) Socio ditata labore … J. Wandelaar del. et fecit. (bound with) Inleidinge tot de Geographie … Door den Heer Sanson d’Abbeville, Ordinaris Geographist des Konings. Te Amsterdam, By Johannes Covens en Cornelis Mortier, Boekverkopers op den Vygendam. Met Privilelgie der Heeren Staaten van Holland en West-Vriesland.


Jencquel, Kaspar Friedrich (Caspar Friedrich Neickelius). 1727. Museographia oder Anleitung zum rechten Begriff und nützlicher Anlegung der Mvseorvm Oder Raritäten-Kammern. Leipzig: Hubert.


Kanold, Johann. 1729. Curieuse und nutzbare Anmerckungen von Natur- und Kunst-Geschichten : durch eigene Erfahrung und aus vielerley Correspondenz gesammlet. Suppl. 4. Budißin: Richter (152p., [8] ) Series: Sammlung von Natur- und Medicin- wie auch hierzu gehörigen Kunst- und Literatur-Geschichten so sich von 1717-26 in Schlesien und anderen Orten begeben … und als Versuch ans Licht gestellet / Supplementum curieuser und nutzbarer Anmerkungen von Natur- und Kunstgeschichten ; 4.


Kundmann, Johann Christian. 1723. Von denen zu Carlsberg in Siebenbürgen gefundenen vielen Römischen Nummis, auch Leichen-Steinen mit Lateinischen Inscriptionibus, darunter eine von Achat 200. Pfund schwer. In: Sammlung von Natur- und Medicin- wie auch hierzu gehörigen Kunst- und Literatur-Geschichten so sich von 1717-26 in Schlesien und anderen Orten begeben … und als Versuch ans Licht gestellet, 24 (1723), 435-442


Marperger, Paul Jacob (1656-1730). 1707. Des Geöffneten Ritter-Platzes Dritter Theil, Worinnen die Ausführung der noch übrigen galanten Wissenschafften, Besonders was bey Raritäten- und Naturalien-Kammern, […] zu bemercken vorfället, […], Hamburg: Schiller 1707.


Secondary Literature


Brázdil, Rudolf, Andrea Kiss, Jürg Luterbacher, and Hubert Valášek. (2008). “Weather patterns in eastern Slovakia 1717–1730, based on records from the Breslau meteorological network”. International Journal of Climatology. doi:10.1002/joc.1667


Findlen, Paula. 1996. Possessing Nature. Museums, Collecting, and Scientific Culture in Early Modern Italy. Studies on the history of society and culture, 26. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press.


Findlen, Paula. 2003. “Scientific Spectacle”, in Baroque Rome: Athanasius Kircher and the Roman College Museum, ed. Mordechai Feingold, 226-284.


Garrett, Jeffrey. 1999. “Redefining Order in the German Library, 1775-1825”. Eighteenth-Century Studies 33 (1): 103-123.


Hagner, Michael. 1999. “Enlightened Monsters”, in: William Clark, Jan Golinsky, Simon Shaffer, The Sciences in Enlightened Europe, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 175-217.


Hirsch, August. 1882. „Kanold, Johann“, in: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, [online version]; URL:


Jaeger, Hans. 1990. „Marperger, Paul Jacob“, in: Neue Deutsche Biographie 16 (1990), 234 f. [online version]; URL:


Pearce, Susan M. 1999. Museums and their development. The European tradition 1700–1900; Vol. 2: Museographia oder Anleitung zum rechten Begriff und nützlicher Anlegung der Museorum, oder Raritäten-Kammern, repr. of edition Leipzig 1727. London: Routledge-Thoemmes.


6 Appendix


The appendix contains a rough transcription of towns and mentioned collections out of Jencquel’s chapters 1 (cabinets of curiosities), 2 (former cabinets of curiosities), and 3 (libraries). Kanold’s footnotes and appendices are separately listed. This appendix is a work in progress: the plan is to research each collection separately and link a specific website-page for each collection to the entry in the table. The website-pages will contain not only the original transcript of the passages in Museographia and their paraphrased translations, but also literature, pictures and other information that explain more of the context. The endproduct will map out curiosity cabinets, libraries and their interplays on different levels throughout Europe with an emphasis on territories that today belong to Poland.



6.1 Jencquel’s List of towns with cabinets of curiosities (out of chapter 1)



Page no. Name of Entry(Translated Name of Town, Source: Wikipedia English) Mentioned Collections
19 A
19 Altorff (Altdorf near Nuremberg) Library; hortus medicus; anatomy cabinet
20 Amiens Jesuit library
20 Amboise Royal castle
20 Amras Weapons; natural cabinet; coins and medals; porcellan; artefacts; manuscripts and rare books; instruments; minerals; antiques
22 Amsterdam Town library; private libraries; cabinets of Mr van der Stern, Mr Bruyn, Mr Conbius, Mr Pott, Mr Schwemmerdamms; east- and west Indian houses; gymnasium; auditorium of barbers; hortus medicus; anatomy cabinet
23 Antwerpen (Antwerp) Rubens’ art cabinet
23 Arnstadt Residence of Prince Antonius Günther von Schwartzburg had a coin cabinet, which was then bought by the Duke von Sachsen-Gotha.
24 Arles Ancient graveyard (Roland)
24 Augspurg (Augsburg) Library; art cabinet; coin cabinets of Count Fugger, Doctor Adolph Occoni, and Doctor Thomannus;Doctor Velschen: Medals and antiques, portraits
25 B
25 Basel Library with portraits; Felchianus: coin cabinet;Ammersbach’s art cabinet, which is merged with Erasmus of Rotterdam’s rarities; Doctor Platter’s art cabinet; town hall: six pictures by Holbein
26 Bardewyck Dome
26 Berlin Library: royal coin and medal cabinet; royal castle: art and rarities cabinet, chambers with expensive mobiliar; royal stables, on which rarities and antiques; observatory of Royal Society of Sciences; Amphitheatre in form of animal garden
26 Bern (Berne) Library in the gymnasium
26 Besançon Palace of Mr de Branville: statues
27 Bourdeaux Monastery; town hall; cemetery of St. Severin with stones that are full or empty according to the moon phases
27 Bourges Tresor house; Saint Chapelle
27 Bologna Monstery of the Dominicans with the body of the founder; rolled pieces of the Hebrew Bible; S. Petronio: meridian line; town library; Mr Lotier, a Banker: coin cabinet; communal palace: art cabinets of Ulysses Aldrovandi and Marchese de Cospi; palaces of Durazzi, Doria, Popoli, Renucci, Fantucci, Albergotti, and General Caprara: the latter shows loot that he took back from the Turks
28 Breßlau (Wroclaw) Libraries in two churches, with art and natural cabinets; Count von Hatzfeld, palace: pictures;Count von Proskau: pictures, mathematical and optical instruments, coins, naturalia; Countess Maria Sibylla: her own etchings of naturalia; Benjamin a Loewenstaedt and Ronneburg: pictures, statues, minerals, fossils; Gottfried Hanckius, pastor, Nummophylacium; Michael Liebentantz, diaconus at Maria Magdalena, coins and medals;Joh. Georg Paul: cabinet of pictures, etchings, minerals; Johann Georg Kundmann: natural cabinet
29 Breda Theatrum anatomicum; Hortus medicus seu Botanicus; castle: curiosities
30 Bruessel (Brussels) Town hall: pictures; Jesuit library
31 Blois Herbal pavilion with animal garden; pavilionLusthaus Beauregard
31 C
31 Cassel (Kassel) Library
31 Coelln (Cologne) Relics and sacral curiosities; libraries in the monasteries and in the university
31 Coppenhagen (Copenhagen) Royal Danish art cabinet
32 Compostella Treasure chamber
32 Constantinopel (Istanbul) Treasure chamber of Turk emperor (Seven Towers)
32 D
32 Dantzig (Gdansk) Library; hall above the merchants bourse with paintings and antlers; arsenal
33 Delfft (Delft) Cabinet of Mr. Leuwenbaecks with Microscopia
33 Deventer Mr. Albert Cuperus’ Cabinet with antiques
33 St. Denys (Saint-Denis) Church and abbey with ornaments belonging to the crowning of the kings of France, rarities and relics;
33 Dole Public libraries and other antiques, p.e. Triumphal Arc of Emperor Tiberius
33 Dordrecht Secretarius de Witt: Curiosity Cabinet
33 Dreßden (Dresden) Art chamber with 7 parts; anatomy chamber; castle library; Roß pharmacy in the princely stables; royal garden; Zwinger garden; Princely coin and medal cabinet; Mr Potschild’s paintings; Mr von Tschirnhaus’ mill to polish and cut Jaspis
34 E
34 Escurial (El Escorial) Architecture of the monastery St. Laurentius, especially its library; paintings and globes; rare books; other astrological instruments.
36 F
36 Fano Library; triumphal arc
36 Franckfurt an der Oder (Frankfurt (Oder)) Library; church of the Carthusians with 300 treatises written by Johannes ab Indagine.
37 Franckfurt am Mayn (Frankfurt (Main)) Town library with Doctor Waldschmidt’s cabinet and library; Mr von Uffenbach’s library; Prediger monastery with art works by Durer; Town hall with Golden Bulla; Mr von Berg’s Cabinet
37 Florentz (Florence) Medici palace, rarity chamber;
43 G
43 Gent (Ghent) Library
43 Genua (Genoa) Palace of Canon Ferro with rarity chamber
43 Giessen Library; college with portraits of professors; castle and armory with rarities
43 Gottorff (Gottorf Castle) Library; garden
43 Gotha Coin cabinet
44 Graetz (Grodzisk Wielkopolski) Library; art cabinet
44 H
44 Hamburg Churches, arsenal, library at St. Johanniskirche with natural history collection; Stubbische coin collection;
54 Harlem (Haarlem) Town library; anatomy chamber; hortus medicus
55 Haus im Busch (Friesland) Hall paintings by Jordan Hondhorst and Anton van Dyck, one Rubens painting
55 Hanover Relics in the castle church; coin cabinet of Gerhard Molanus, the former abbot of Loccum; royal library
55 Helmstaedt (Helmstedt) College with library
56 I
56 Jena Bosisches Cabinet with rare foreign coins, minerals, sculptures of pagan gods etc., medical garden at the collegio anatomico; house of Prof. Weigel without staircases.
57 Inspruck (Innsbruck) Castle of Inspruck with six gardens; gallery; tresor hall; ducal library; Arsenal; ducal art cabinet; pheasant house and animal garden.
58 K
58 Koenigsberg (Kaliningrad) Castle with armory, library; dome church with Wallenrodic library
59 L
63 Leiden Medical garden with “Indian Cabinet” containing exotic objects of natural history; anatomy chamber with sceletons and cultural objects like mummies and clothes.
65 Leipzig Library and theatro anatomico; town hall library with natural history collection and coin collection, containing cabinets of Heinrich Meyer and Christoph Daniel Findekeller; Lorentz’s art chamber; Bos’s garden; Rivinus natural collection;
65 Loo Garden, animals and curious objects
65 Londen (London) Royal exchange; tower with arsenals and tresor chamber; Royal Society
67 Loretto Santa Casa: treasure
68 Luebeck (Lübeck) Doctor Götzius: library; Mr. M. Jacob von Mellen: coin cabinet; churches
69 Lueneburg (Lüneburg) Public library; town hall kitchenroom: Part of a sow
69 Lion (Lyon) Mr de Liergues: Cabinet with coins, antiques, rarities and artefacts; Mr Serviens’ cabinet see Montpellier
70 M
70 Magdeburg Otto von Guericke: Pneumatic curiosities (destroyed 1631); Dome St. Mauritius with antiques
70 Madrit (Madrid) Royal treasure
70 Messina Petrus Castelli: Rarity cabinet (once)
70 Milano, oder Meyland (Milan) Manfredus Settala: Cabinet with glas lenses, natural history objects; coins; pietrified woods and fruits; artefacts; minerals; paintings; Ambrosian library: more than 40.000 books; academy of painting
71 Montpellier Hortus medicus; colleges; rumor that Mr. Servien had his cabinet here and that it went to Lyon: mathematical tricks made by himself
73 Muenchen (Munich) Elector’s armory, library and art cabinet with five chambers, perspective hall with paintings showing perspective; antiques hall; furniture hall; treasure hall; cabinet with medals
74 N
74 Nancy Palace with paintings and rarities
74 Neapolis (Naples) Palace of Vice King; library of Holy Apostles; once: Marius Scipianus’ and Ferrandus Imperialis’ natural cabinets; Mr Francesco Pichetti: cabinet of antiques; cabinets of Caraffa, Cioffi; Donati; Eremit.
75 Nuernberg (Nürnberg) Prediger monastery with library containing manuscripts and objects; Volckamer’s cabinet; Welser’s cabinet; Biati’s cabinet with rarities; Mr. Ebener’s antiques cabinet; Mr Hantsch’s mechanical rarity cabinet; Mr Stoeberlein’s natural cabinet; Mr Besler’s cabinet
77 O
77 Oldenburg Library, garden
77 Ortenburg Castle with cabinet of artefacts; animal garden
77 Oranienburg Palace of the King of Prussia with rarities and the Porcellain chamber
77 Orleans Library; university
77 Oxford Many libraries with rare books, most famous Bodleian library, anatomy hall.
79 P
79 Passau Cardinal Duke von Lamberg, library (Duke died 1712)
79 Paris Franciscan monastery with royal library; observatory; Chevalier de Lorraine: paintings; Louvre: paintings; Mr. Belluchau’s painting cabinet; Bailly de Hauteseville’s painting cabinet; Baudelot d’Arrival’s antiques; Mr Vivant’s coin cabinet; Francis Drott at the Church St. Tomas du Louvre; Abbot Aignan, Abbey St. Germain: chemical cabinet; rarity cabinet of Mr Boucot; royal medal cabinet; Mr Vaillant’s coin cabinet; Francois d’Orbay’s cabinet; royal medical garden with natural cabinet; Duchess de Beuvron, artefact treasures; cabinet with medal stamps; royal library: medal cabinet; abbey St. Genevieve du Mont with cabinet and library; Mr Ant. Benoist’s wax portrait cabinet; Sorbonne; College Royal; Academie Française; Academie des Sciences, des Lettres, des Medailles; royal garden Tuilliers; Hospital des Invalides.
82 Padua Dome with library; Church of Saint Anthony of Lisbon: treasures; many art cabinets
82 St. Petersburg (Saint Petersburg) Czar Peter has visited Europe in 1697 and 1698 and has bought curiosities, they might be in St. Petersburg.
84 Philippsburg His Excellency the General Thuengen’s coin cabinet
84 Pisa Hortus medicus; natural cabinet; artefacts
84 Prag (Prague) Colleges including Jesuit college; royal castle Ratschin with cabinet and gardens
85 R
85 Richelieu Castle with paintings, statues and other rarities, library
85 Rimini Duke of Giambologna: library with books and objects
85 Regenspurg (Regensburg) Hall with mosaic opposite town hall; churches; Jesuit college S. Emeran; monastery with bibles in golden letters written in Basel and seen by Melanchthon
86 Rotterdam Mr. Deinor’s cabinet; Sr. van Vliet: artefacts, esp. papercuts
86 Rostock Libraries
86 Rouen Jesuit college with library; monastery S. Ouen with rarities
86 Rom (Rome) Vatican: pictures, clothes, relics, crowns, library; Belvedere: garden; papal armory; Palazzo Altieri: libraries; library of the Augustins; library of Ottobon; important libraries: Cardinal Chigi, Barberini, Imperiale, Alla Chiesa Nuova, Patribus dell’Oratorio S. Philippo Neri; Collegio del Capranica: law library; Praelat Severoli: law library; libraries at Ara Coeli, S. Maria del Populo, S. Minerva, S. Prascede, etc.
108 S
108 Saltzthalen (Salzdahlum) Art and rarity cabinet
109 Saltzburg (Salzburg) Art and weapon cabinet of Archbishop; armories; dome S. Petrus; monastery S. Sebastian
109 Straßburg (Strasbourg) Art cabinet in the monastery of discalced Carmelites; armory; library founded by BishopOttone and further built up by the theologian Geilerus; dome with clockwork
110 Stettin (Szczecin) Library of royal gymnasium; coin cabinet of Doctor Cramer, minister of the church S. Jacob
110 Stralsund Gymnasium with library
110 Stockholm Royal library; cabinet of Master von Ackerstiern contains library, art and coin cabinet; cabinets ofMr Niemann, Mr Barenner, Mr Carlstein
111 T
111 Thorn (Torun) Libraries of the reformed and Lutheran confessions;tomb of Copernicus
112 Thoulouse Churches S. Stephan, Saturninus; monastery of Observants: Curiosities
112 Turin Palaces (royal palace: furniture); Churches (Jesuits and others): paintings; monasteries, colleges and two academies: rare curiosities; library and art cabinet of the Duke
112 U
112 Ulm Weickmann coin cabinet: medals, art and naturalia; Furtenbach cabinet: models of machines
113 Upsal (Uppsala) Collegio Academico Gustaviano: library and cabinet with coins etc. (went from Augsburg to Gustaf Adolf); Rudbeckii House
113 Utrecht University library; churches with rarities, among them unicorns
114 V
114 Versailles Stairs; animal gardens
114 Venedig (Venice) Library of S. Marco; Cardinal Bessarion’s library; libraries in the monasteries and colleges at S. Johannes and Paulus, S. Stephanus, Servorum Maria, S. Georgius Majoris, S. Cominicus, S. Antonius (former owner was Picus a Mirandula); in the libraries next to the rare books are also pictures by Titian etc., and statues. S. Marcus Tresor or Treasure house; palace S. Marcus; armory; two academies of painting
123 Veletri (Velletri) Margrave Ganetti’s residence with antiques
124 Verona Franciscus Calceolar cabinet
125 W
125 Weimar Castle Wilhelmsburg: library, coin cabinet; art and natural cabinet (from town mayor Christian Lorentz von Adlershelm of Leipzig)
125 Wismar Library of Vice-President Mevius
125 Wien (Vienna) Library of the Emperor (started by Maximilian I, incorporated: Matthias’ library from Ofen; Johannes Sambucus’; Matthaeius Corvinus’ and Wolffgang Lazius’ libraries; Augerius Busbequius’, Johannis Cuspiniani’s library; Emperor Ferdinandus III’s library; the library of the Fugger; Ambrosian library; treasure cabinet; animal garden; cabinets of: Trauthson, Bock, Alprunner; St. Stephan and three Jesuit churches; more palaces and colleges
131 Wittenberg Gottfr. Nicolai, town judge and apothecary: natural cabinet with Bezoars (description: Christian Warlitz)
133 Worms Civilian house (Bürgerhaus) with bench on which Luther sat; coin house
134 Wolfenbuettel (Wolfenbüttel) Library (integrating the libraries of Freher, Curione father and son, Clutenius, with curiosity cabinet;mathematical instruments cabinet (see also Saltzthalen, with library and curiosity cabinet)
137 Z
137 (to 137) Zuerich (Zürich) Library; coin cabinet; natural cabinet; arsenal; Collegium Carolinum: library; Joh. Jac. Scheuchzer, natural cabinet (petrified fish and herbarium)




6.2 Kanold’s additions (towns with curiosity cabinets) to chapter 1


Kanold’s appendix to chapter 1


Page no. Name of Entry Mentioned Collections
138 Amsterdam Art and natural cabinet of Albertus Seba
140 Anspach (Ansbach) Mr Joh. Christian Rau’s coin cabinet
142 Berlin Royal armory, royal art cabinet, Royal medal cabinet, cabinet of the society on the observatory; Doctor Eller’s mineral cabinet; apothecary Neumann’s botanical collection; Mr Frische’s cabinet of insects
143 Cahla Doctor Beyer’s natural cabinet
144 Coblentz (Koblenz) Doctor Hiegell’s art and natural cabinet
145 Coburg Doctor Albrecht’s cabinet; Doctor Verporrten’s cabinet, both natural cabinets; minister Berger’s coin and medal cabinet
147 Eisenach Mr Negelein’s natural cabinet
148 Franckfurt am Mayn (Frankfurt (Main)) Doctor Rißner’s mineral cabinet; Mr von Uffenbach’s artefacts’ cabinet; Mr von Loen’s art cabinet; Mr von der Burg’s art cabinet; Mr von Uchelli’s art and artefacts cabinet; Doctor Ochs’ coin cabinet
152 Landshut Mr Ropisch’s natural and coin cabinet; Mr von Beuchel’s cabinet
154 Leipzig Mr Lincke’s natural cabinet
157 Magdeburg Apothecary Oloff’s natural cabinet
159 Memmingen Rare coins’ cabinet (anonymously published)
162 Nuernberg (Nürnberg) Mr Imhof’s art cabinet; Mr Praun’s art cabinet; Mr Volckamer’s art and natural cabinet; Mr Ebermayer’s art and natural cabinet
169 Regensburg Apothecary Weinmann’s natural cabinet
170 Ulm Matthäus Bayer’s list of curiosities for sale at his house
177 (to 178 incl) Weimar Doctor Mueller’s art and natural cabinet



Kanold’s footnotes to chapter 1


Page no. Name of Entry Mentioned Collections
25 Angerburg Mr Hellwing’s lost fossil cabinet
25 Anspach (Ansbach) Princely art cabinet
30 Birckenfeld (Birkenfeld) Art cabinet
30 Braunschweig Doctor Brueckmann’s natural cabinet; Mr Schmidt’s coin and natural cabinet; Mr Ridder’s coin and art cabinet; Mr Rauschenplatt’s natural cabinet
35 Eisenach see appendix
36 Elbingen Prof. Seiler’s coin cabinet
36 Erfurt von Lincker’s art cabinet; Doctor Cortum’s mineral cabinet
42 Freyberg in Meissen (Freiberg) von Tettau’s mineral cabinet
44 St. Gall Art cabinet
44 Graentzhof in Curland (Grenzhof (Latvia)) Mr Rhanaeus’ antiques cabinet
44 Guntzenhausen (Gunzenhausen) Baron Eichler von Auritz’ art cabinet;
56 Halle im Magdeburgischen (Halle) Hoffmann’s cabinet; Orphanage art cabinet; Spener’s cabinet sold in Berlin
56 Schwaebisch-Hall (Schwäbisch-Hall) Apothecary Erich’s herbarium vivum
56 Hanau Count Casimir’s art and natural cabinet
56 Heidelberg Coin and medal cabinets
56 Herrmanstadt in Siebenbuergen (Sibiu (Romania)) Library of the Gymnasium with natural cabinet
57 Hurés (Monastery Hures (Wallachia) Monastery library and curiosities
58 Kaesmarck (Kezmarok (Slovakia)) Dr. Fischer’s natural cabinet; Mr. Buchholtz, natural cabinet
69 Landshut Mr Ropisch’s natural and coin cabinet
69 Lignitz (Legnica (Poland)) Mr Dewerdeck’s coin cabinet
69 Leutkirch Dr. Furtenbach’s cabinet of artefacts
69 Loewen (Leuven) Doctor Gutschoven’s anatomy cabinet
69 Lucern Doctor Lange’s natural cabinet
73 Mantua Antiques hall
73 Massel (Maslow (Poland)) Mr Hermann’s fossils and antiques cabinet
74 Memmingen Doctor Ehrhart’s natural cabinet
78 Oels (Olesnica (Poland)) Library with natural cabinet and coin cabinet
84 Parma Cabinet of coins and medals
108 Riga Doctor Martini’s natural cabinet; Doctor Fischer’s nautral cabinet
108 Rummes in Siebenbuergen (Romos (Romania)) Mr Roehrig’s coin collection
110 Schaffhausen: Solothurn (Schaffhausen and Solothurn) Paullinus’ art and natural cabinet
111 Stuttgard (Stuttgart) Ducal natural cabinet; Mr Hiemer’s natural cabinet
112 Tuebingen (Tübingen) Prof. Camerario’s cabinet; apothecary Gmehlin’s natural cabinet, has purchased the cabinet of apothecary Ottmann from Stuttgart
136 Wuerzburg (Würzburg) Doctor Beringer’s collection of petrified animals




6.3 Jencquel’s List of towns with former cabinets of curiosities (out of chapter 2)



Page no. Name of Entry Mentioned Collections
181 A
181 Agra Castle with treasure and garden
182 Amsterdam Johann Volckers’ rarity cabinet; Mr Roeter’s rarity cabinet; Joann Schrammerdam’s apothecary cabinet; Georg Reynst’s cabinet; Mr Bruyn’s rarity cabinet; Mr. N. Blaeu’s cabinet; Mr. N. Colbius’s cabinet; Mr. Joann Poti’s cabinet; Mr Ruyschens’ Anatomy chamber
183 Alcmar (Alkmaar) Cornelius Drebbel’s cabinet
183 Altorff (Altdorf near Nuremberg) Doctor Mauritius Hoffmann’s Cabinet
183 Aquitanien (Aquitaine) Scaliger’s curiosities
183 Arles Mr Pireskii’s rarity cabinet, art cabinet of Agathus
184 Andex (Andechs) Benedictine monastery with treasures and rarities, mostly relics
184 Augspurg (Augsburg) Magister Misson (microscopic artefacts); Doctor Georg Hieronymus Velschius (rarities)
185 Augustusburg Castle with natural cabinet
185 B
185 Berlin Royal rarity cabinet with rare artefacts, treasury, coin cabinet in the library, antiques, arsenal; Professor Pfeiffer: natural cabinet.
186 Breßlau (Wroclaw) Mr Joh. Kretschmar; Mr D. Laureae; Brothers Volignadius; Mr D. Laurentius Scholtzius; Mr. N. Kalenberger; Mr N. Krusius; Mr D. Philip. Jacob. Sachs a Loewenheim; Mr von Rethel; Mr D. Fridr. Kaltschmied (minerals); Mr von Lohnstein (coins); Haunoldian (coins); Mr von Hoffmannswaldau (coins); Mr von Reusch (coins); library of S. Elisabeth; library of S. Maria Magdalena
186 Bologna or Bononien (Bologna) Doctor Aldrovandi (natural cabinet); Marchese Cospi (antiques); Mr. Lotiers (coins); Mr Vintimiglia (rarities)
186 Bordeaux Mr Samuel Veyrel (rarities); Mr N. Raemundus (rarities)
186 Bremen Art cabinet of Mr Meyer
187 Bevensen Mr. Sigismund Schellhammer (rarities)
187 Brüssel (Brussels) Jesuits (rarities)
187 C
187 Coppenhagen (Copenhagen) Olaus Wormius (Natural cabinet); N. Charisius (rarities); Thomus Bartholinus (rarities); Doctor Henrich Fusiren (rarities); Museum reg. Dan. or Royal Danish Art and Natural cabinet;
188 Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Royal Treasure
189 Cusco Royal Castle with garden as golden rarities
189 Constantinopel (Istanbul) Ibrahim Bassa, Castle (rarities, treasure); Sultan, treasure hall
190 Coeln (Cologne) Mr von Fürstenberg (rarities)
190 D
190 Dessau Castle with two cabinets for paintings and porcellan
191 Dantzig (Gdansk) Mr Beynius (cabinet); Mr de Noyens (cabinet)
191 Darmstadt Landgraves of Hessen: art cabinet
191 Dreßden (Dresden) Elector’s Art Cabinet (artefacts, naturalia, treasure)
195 Delfft (Delft) Doctor van der Meer, Mr. le Revier, Doctor Dacket, Doctor Gravesandt
195 E
195 Enckhuysen (Enkhuizen) Doctor Gerhard Paludani, art cabinet
195 F
195 Friederichsstadt (Friedrichstadt)
  1. Ovens; Jens Martens (both: art cabinets, the latter: conchylien and other rarities)
195 Franckfurt am Mayn (Frankfurt (Main)) Doctor Horstius (rarities); Doctor Peters (rarities)
195 Femern (Fehmarn) Pater Christian Detlev Rhode (antiques, went to Lübeck)
196 Friederichsburg and Fontainebleau (Friedrichsburg and Fontainebleau) Two royal castles, Danish and French; both loaded with treasure, artefacts and naturalia.
196 Florentz (Florence) Churches (Dome, S. Giovanni, della Nunziata, S. Laurentius, Medici-chapel); apothecaries with chemical collections
197 G
197 Gottorff (Castle Gottorf) The art cabinet of the Duke of Holstein with is foundation in the collection of Doctor Gerhardus Paludanus
197 Gotha Magister Reyher’s cabinet
198 Geißlingen Johann Ludwig Guetius’s rarities
198 H
198 Haag (The Hague) Prince Moritz von Nassau’s new residence: American rarities; Johann Schellhammer’s cabinet; Natural cabinet of Mr Resnerus
198 Halle in Magdeburgischen (Halle) Prince Albrecht’s rarities; Mr Laurentius Hoffmann’s rarities
198 Hamptoncourt Castle with rarities of Henry VIII
198 Hamburg Once: Doctor Fogel, Doctor Husvedel (cabinet went to Sweden), Johann Mossauer, David Schellhammer, N. Sivers, P. Professor Mathem., Mr Ambrosius Lehmann’s Mussels cabinet; Doctor Otto Sperling’s cabinet; Lüders’ coin cabinet, William Koen, rarity; Mr Schott’s curiosities;Today: Johannes Anderson (rarities and antiques); Marcus Friedrich Stenglien (paintings); Johann Friedrich Natorp (rarities); Arnold Haenschen (Mussels and insects); Petrus Johann Movers (curiosities); Daniel Quint (rarities); Nr. Berendlausen (rarities); Matthias Lütgens (paintings); Doctor Antonius Verborg (anatomy); Mr. Stubb’s cabinet; Mr. Levi’s coin cabinet; de Herthogen family: natural cabinet; Doctor Baertling’s natural cabinet; public libraries with natural and Mathematical rarities.
200 Huesca Don Vincenzio Juan de Lastanosa’s rarity cabinet
200 Hanau Graf Casimirus: rarity cabinet
200 Harburg Barthold de Longon: rarity cabinet
200 Hildesheim Doctor Friedrich Lachmund: rarity cabinet
200 I
200 Jena Doctor Wedel, Doctor Rollfinck: cabinets
201 Jerusalem King Salomon: rarity cabinet, Hiskias: rarity cabinet (Lit. Major)
201 K
201 Kiel Johann Daniel Major: museum
201 L
201 Lauenburg Dukes of Lauenburg
201 Leipzig Art and rarity cabinets of Rivinus (Medicus and Botanicus), Lorentz Adlershelm (Town Major), Doctor Elias Sigismud von Reinhardt, N. Bosius, N. Meyer
201 Leiden Anatomy chamber; Ambulacrum of medical garden; Doctor Johann Horn, N. Knolter:rarity cabinets
201 Loewen (Leuven) Doctor Gutschoven: anatomy cabinet
201 Londen (London) Mr Pettiver; Joann Trudesio: museum at South Lambeth with garden of rare plants; Museum Ashmoleanum
202 M
202 Montpellier
  1. Castellanus, Jubertus: rarity cabinets
202 Mantua Prince Gonzaga, rarity cabinet
202 Malta Joann. Franciscus Habela, rarity cabinet
203 Mastrich (Maastricht) Stone-cave at St. Petershill
203 Messina Petrus Castellus founded a medical garden, an anatomical theatre, and a chemical laboratory
203 Mexico Palaces of King Montezuma
205 N
205 Neapolis (Naples) Rarity chambers of Tib. Caraffa; Johann. Vincentii Porta
205 Nancking (Nanjing) Astronomical observatory with mathematical instruments
206 Nimes Canonicus, Art cabinet with head of Cleopatra
207 Nimwegen (Nijmegen) Smetius, Pinacotheca
207 Nürnberg Doctor Mich. Rupert Besler; Dilhern; Doctor Hillinger; Stöberlein (apothecary); Viati; Ebener (antiques, coins and etchings)
207 P
207 Padua Bonavidius, Bruzi, Corradinus, Sala, Speronius, Sertorius Ursatus: rarity and natural cabinets, the best was: Carl Patis (prof. med.)
207 Paris Cardinal Richelieu; Mr Pretesegle; Guil. Musicus; Girardon (sculptor); Cheval. de Lorraine (paintings) Secretaire Bellucham; Bailly d’Hauteseville; Colbert (medals); De Therovenne; De Seve; Patin Junior; de Malebranche; Bandelot d’Arival; Francois d’Orbay Vaillant (coins); Canon Francois Drou; Abbé Dignan, chymical rarities; Montarey, different rarities; Boucot, conchylia; Ant. Benoist, wax and clothes
208 Poictiers (Poitiers) Pauli Contanti, Art and wonder cabinet
208 Pisa Medical faculty: rarity chamber
208 Pratolin (Pratolino) Grand Duke of Florence, rarity chamber
208 Puna King’s residence (former)
209 Q
209 Quedlinburg
  1. Homburg, museum
210 Rotterdam Erasmus (Basel)
210 Rom (Rome) Vatican; Quirinal; Capitolio; Palazzo Barbarini, Villa Borghese; Palazzo Farnese; Palaces of Justiniani, Ludovisi; garden of Mathei; Palaces and gardens of de’ Medici; Montalto; Pamphyli
213 Schweinfurt Doctor Bauschius, museum
213 Stetin (Szczecin (Poland)) Magister Rango, museum
214 Straßburg (Strasbourg) Mr Brackenhoffer: museum; convent of discalced Carmelite friars
214 Stuttgard (Stuttgart) Prince of Wuertemberg
214 T
214 Turin Duke’s Pallast



6.4 Kanold’s additions (towns with former curiosity cabinets) to chapter 2


Kanold’s footnotes to chapter 2


Page no. Town (Wikipedia English) Cabinets
185 Augspurg (Augsburg) In addition: cabinets of Peutinger, Schaller and Schaumberg
185 Aix Mr Nic. Claud. Frabricius de Peiresc, artefacts and naturalia cabinet; Mr Bourrilly, cabinet; Mr Lautier, cabinet.
185 Angers Mr Chaudet, apothecary (naturalia and artefacts cabinet)
185 Antwerpen (Antwerp) Mr. Douart (paintings)
187 Bernburg Doctor Pfannenschmidt (minerals)
205 Middelburg Mr Fierentio, rarities and paintings; Mr. Delcorne, rarities
205 Montfort Rarity cabinet
213 Rochelle (La Rochelle) Mr Hamelot (doctor), curiosities; Mr Flans (reformed minister), Art chamber
216 Xaintes Mr Verst, apothecary rarity cabinet



6.5 Jencquel’s List of towns with libraries (out of chapter 3)



Page no. Name of Entry Mentioned Libraries
240 Athen (Athens) First library, put together by Pisitratus
240 America (continent) Spanish conquerors found books on agriculture, plants and history, see “Colluacan”
241 Amiens Jesuit library
241 Amras (part of Innsbruck) castle library
241 Altorff (Altdorf near Nürnberg) university library with books and curiosities
241 Abyssinia (Ethiopia) Christian library
242 Amara (Amhara in Ethiopia) Library foundation by Queen of Saba (legendary)
243 Abagamedra (town in Ethiopia) Monastery library
243 Alcala des Henares (Alcalá de Henares) Franciscus Ximenes’ library, founded in 1517, next to the University Complutense
243 Allgäu Monastery St. Urban, built 1194
243 Algier (Algiers) Library of the Algerian Governor
243 Alexandria Royal Library of King Ptolemeus Philadelphus
246 Antiochia (Antakya (Turkey)) Library in Trajan’s Temple
246 Athos (Mountain) Monasteries’ libraries
247 Achen (Aachen) Carolus Magnus’ library
247 Arabien (Arabia) King Jo. Almanzor’s library; also: libraries in Bagdad, Babylon, Gaza, Damascus and Mauritania (the Mauritanian library was brought to Spain and merged with the Escorial library), Marocco, Constantinople (had three Arabian libraries)
247 Amsterdam Public town library
248 Antwerpen (Antwerp) Many libraries
248 Anhalt Anhalt library
248 Aquitanien (Aquitaine) Library of Scaliger
248 Ardebil (Ardabil (Iran)) Library
248 Auchei Libraries
248 Augspurg (Augsburg) Town library
249 Arnstadt Library
249 Agra Royal castle: treasure of books
249 B
249 Basel Library, merged with Ammerbach’s library
250 Bagdad Library; Library of Monastery of Nestorians
250 Bern (Berne) Town library, includes Bongarsuis’s library
250 Bergamo Library
250 Heiligen Berg (Mount Athos, Greece) Manuscript library
251 Berlin Town library with rare books and manuscripts in many languages
252 Blois King Louis II’s library (history books)
252 Bologna Libraries in monasteries; university library; library of Aldrovandi (once, went to Rome)
253 Bourges Town library with library of J. C. Boerii
253 Breda Prince of Orange Frederic Henry has founded a princely school and collegium, including a library
253 Breßlau (Wroclaw) Protestant libraries: Bibliotheca Elisabethana; Bibliotheca Magdalenea
258 Bruessel (Brussels) Jesuit College and Library
258 Breitenburg Count Heinrich von Rantzau’s residence with library
259 Besançon Palace de Granvelle’s library
259 C
259 Cassel (Kassel) Princely library
259 Caffa (Feodosia (Ukraine)) Monastery S. Blasius
259 Cambridge Colleges with libraries, among which excel the public university library and library at the Benedictine college
259 Coppenhagen (Copenhagen) Library belonging to the academy; Greffenfeld earl of Samsoe had once a library (burnt down); prof. Reiser’s library; privy counsellor Rostegard’s library (auctioned off)
260 Daenemarck (Denmark) University libraries and private libraries
260 Coburg Duke Johann Casimirus’ library taken away by General von Wallenstein
261 Colluacan (Region in Mexico) Books were found among the native south Americans of this region
261 Constantinopel (Istanbul) Three Arabian Libraries: Emperor Constantin’s library; a library for nobility and slaves; a library close to the chamber of Great-Sultan (burnt down in 1665)
261 Corduba (Cordoba) Saracene royal library and college, taken into African exile
263 Corfu Library (Augspurg’s counsellors bought in 1545 manuscripts from there)
263 Cozumel (in South America) Spanish conquerors found books on agriculture, plants, and history
263 Cracau (Krakow) The bigger of the two theological-philosophical Colleges of Cracau University has an excellent library
263 D
263 Dantzig (Gdansk) Carmeliter monastery had library, burnt down in 1678; town library
263 Damasco (Damascus) Library
263 Dole Library
264 Deventer Library of the gymnasium
264 Dordrecht Library of the gymnasium
264 Doccum (Dokkum) Library of the gymnasium
264 Dunen Library of the gymnasium
265 Dreßden (Dresden) Castle library
265 Dillingen Jesuit library
265 Escurial (El Escorial) Royal Library (burt 1671)
267 Eisenach Library
268 F
268 Fesula (Fiesole) College Library
268 Ferrara Carmelite monks’ library
268 Fez Royal library of Mauretania came in part to Spain to the royal Spanish library
269 Florentz (Florence) Library S. Laurentius; Monasterium S. Marcus; S. Benedictus; Holy Cross; Bishop’s mansion; Maria Novella
269 Franecker Academy and Library
269 Franckfurt am Mayn (Frankfurt (Main)) Public Library; Mr von Uffenbach’s Library;
271 Franckfurt an der Oder (Frankfurt (Oder) Libraries
271 Fulda Abbey library
271 G
271 Gaza Library
271 Griechen (Greece) Athens’ library; Knidos’ library (burnt); Chios’ library; Olymp: monasteriy with library; Plato’s library; Aristotle’s library; Apamea (today in Syria) library; Clearchus of Heraclea’s library; Ptolemaic library in Alexandria; second ancient library in Alexandria; Hadrian’s library in Athens
273 Genff (Geneva) Library
273 Gent (Ghent) Libraries
273 Genua (Genoa) Minorite monks’ library; Dominican monks’ library; Salnic Library
273 Gemblours (Gembloux) Benedictine monastery S. Giuberto’s library
274 Giessen Library
274 Gotha Library; Ernest Salomon Cyprian’s library
274 Gottorff (Castle Gottorf) Library
274 Graetz (Grodzisk Wielkopolski) Princely library
275 Groeningen (Groningen) Library
275 Gruenenthal Library
275 Guatimalo (Guatamala) Native Americans’ books, found by Spanish conquerers, about agriculture, plants, history
275 H
275 Hagibestage (antique town in Anatolia) Santon Hagibestage’s library in Mosque at Hagibestage
275 Halle Mr Christian Distelmeyer’s Library
276 Hamburg Public library at Johannis Church; public library at the Dome; Mr. Joh. Winckler’s library; many private libraries; Mr Rutger Ruland’s library; Mr. Schroeder’s library; Mr Wolffius’ library; Mr. Fabricius’ library; Mr. Johann Hübner’s library; S. Catherine Church library
277 Harlem (Haarlem) Library
277 Helmstaedt (Helmstedt) Library
277 Heidelberg Library Palatina, with libraries of Fugger and Bongarisus, went in most parts to Rome in 1622; Library at Collegium Sapientiae
279 Hertzogenbusch Heinrich Copes’ library
280 Holland or Niederland (The Netherlands) Amsterdam: public and many private libraries; libraries at Antwerp, Breda, Brügge, Bruessel, Deventer, Doccum, Dordrecht, Dunen bei Neuport, Franeker, Groeningen, Gruenendal, Gent, Gemblours, Haag, Hardervvik, Luettig, Leuvarden, Loewen, Leiden, Middelburg, Thiel, Utrecht, Ypern, Zütphen.
281 Holsteinischen (Holstein) Library in Gottorff, library of the Count von Rantzau at Breitenburg; library of Baron von Kielmanns-Eck
281 Hanover Royal Library
281 I
281 Jerusalem Temple library; Synagogue libraries
283 Ilerda Michael Thomasius’ library
283 Ingolstadt University library
284 Inspruck (Innsbruck) Ducal library
284 Irrland (Ireland) University library in Dublin
284 Italien (Italy) 13 universities with libraries
286 Jucatan Books of native Americans were found by Spanish conquerors
286 Jena University library
287 K
287 Koenigsberg (Kaliningrad) Castle library
288 L
288 Lauingen Library
289 Leipzig Library at Pauliner college, belonging to university of Leipzig with Doctor Steinmetz’ Library; Townhall library
294 Leiden Mr Thysius’ library
295 Ligmuen (Mountain near Chongqing (China)) Temple library; Royal library at Veuchung in China; many libraries in Auchei (Anhwei)
297 Lion (Lyon) Jesuit college library
297 Legion (Lechenich near Cologne) Petrus Pontius’ library (came to Escorial)
298 Londen (London) St. Paul’s Cathedral, library (burnt); Royal library at Westminster (Cotton library); public library of college Sion; Carmelite library; S. James’ Library; Library of Bishop of Canterbury; Library of Great Chancellor; Mr Barlow’s library; Library of the church de Welles; Oxford colleges’ libraries; Bodleian Library; Cambridge colleges’ libraries; Cambridge university library; Henry VII’s library at Castle Richmond; library of Earl Arundel at Castle Nonschitz; library at York
306 Lucca Franciscan Library; Farnese Library
306 Luebeck (Lübeck) and Libraries, most famous Doctor Goetz’ library in Luebeck
306 Lueneburg (Lüneburg) Libraries
306 M
306 Magdeburg Public library burnt down in 1631
309 Marpurg (Marburg) Library
309 Mantua Duke’s Library
309 Marocco (Morocco, perceived as town in Mauretania) Libraries
309 Mauritanien (Mauritania) King’s library went to Spain, is part of Royal Spanish Library
310 Mayland (Milan) Ambrosian library; Dominican library
310 Metz Former library of Zweibruecken is now part of the library of the bishop of Reims in Metz
310 Mexico Argricultural books, books of plants and books of history were found by the conquering Spaniards among the natives
310 Miako (Kyoto) Temple library
311 Moscau (Moscow) Collection of Czar Petrus Alexiowitz
314 Muenchen (Munich) Jesuit college; Elector’s library
314 N
314 Neapolis (Naples) Academy of Ardenti; academy of Otiosi; library of Holy Apostles; library of S. Dominicus; library of S. Catharine; of S. Petrus Martyr; of S. Mar. Oliv. (sic!); at S. Giovanni Carbon.; etc. ; at S. Mart. (sic!)
314 Nicaragua Spanish conquerors have found books when they arrived.
314 Nuernberg (Nürnberg) Town library
316 O
316 Ofen Castle: Corvin library
316 Oldenburg Library
316 Oelberg Monastery library
316 Olympus Monastery library
316 Ostorog (Ostrorog (Poland)) Libraries of Mathias Rybinius and Martinus Gratianus Gentichius burnt down
316 Orleans Library
317 Oxfort (Oxford) 18 College libraries; university library
318 P
318 Paris Royal library; Thuanus library; library of Mazzarin college; Cardinal Richelieu’s library; Chancellor Petrus Seguier’s library; Mr Colbert’s library; Royal Secretary Mr Justel’s library; Mr de Lamoignon’s library; Procureur General de Harley’s library; President Lotin’s library; Mr de Thou’s library; Mr de Bucheral’s library, Mr de Morangis’ library; Mr de Fronbet’s library; Mr de Montmor’s library; Mr de Sailo’s library; Mr Petan’s library; Mr de Malbranche’s library; Mr de Lauzun’s library; Mr Escuyet’s library; Mr Bluet’s library; Mr Patin’s library; Mr. Mentel’s library; Mr. Barre’s library; Mr. de Sartes’ library; Abbé Bignon’s library; Abbé Villeloin’s library; library at monastery S. Germain; Abbey S. Genevieve du Mont, library; Jesuit College of Clermont library; Jacobin library de la Porte S. Jaques; of the discalced order; of the minorites; de la Place Royale, at the Prêtres de l’Oratoire; at the Rue S. Honoré; at the abbey S. Victor; at the colleges Sorbonne and Navarre; at the college Mont. Aruti (burnt); Philippus Mornaeus’ library went to church at Saumur (destroyed); Mr Boucot’s library; follow a few more notes on libraries in France.
325 Padua Monastery at the church S. Justina, library; palace of Capitain Grande, library; university library; S. Agostino, library; monastery S. Francesco, library; monastery S. Ursula; monastery Diva Maria Batalca
326 Parma and Libraries
326 Pavia Library of Viscount Galeatio (Louis XII brought the library to Paris)
326 Pathmus (Patmos) Monastery S. Blasius in Caffa, library
326 Pergamon (Asia) Antique library, burnt down
327 Persia (Iran) King Xerxes conquered Athens and brought the Athens library to Persia, Seleucus Nicanor brought the library back to Athens; Darius founded libraries in Echatana and Babylon; Sufianic library; Ardebil, library
328 Pisa Aldus Manutius’ library at the university
328 Polen (Poland) and Castle of Vilnius (Lithuania), library; Cracau, university library; Ostorog, many libraries burnt down; Dantzig, Carmelite monastery with library, burnt down; Brescia (Brest), Jewish University library; Thorn, refomed, Catholique and Lutheran libraries
328 Preußen (Prussia) King of Prussia: libraries in Berlin, Koenigsberg, etc.
329 Portugall (Portugal) In general: scholarship
330 Prag (Prague)
  1. Oppenheim’s library
330 St. Petersburg (Saint Petersburg) Academy library
333 R
333 Regenspurg (Regensburg) Monastery library
333 Rimini library of the Count di Gambalonga
333 Rhodus (Rhodos) Augustin’s manuscripts
334 Rostock Many libraries
334 Rouan (Rouen) Jesuit library
334 Rom (Rome) Libraries: see chapter on curiosity cabinets;Aemilius Paulus and Caesar were the first to install libraries at Rome, according to Isidore of Seville; Vatican Library; library at Collegio Romano (Jesuits); library of the Augustine order; library at Palace Altieri; libraries of Cardinals Chigi, Barberini, Imperiale; library of Duke Altemps; library of the Oratorio S. Philippi Neri; library of the collegio della Capranica; library at the Praelate Severoli; libraries in almost all churches, monasteries and colleges, as Ara Celi, S. Maria del Popolo; alla Minerva; library at the university alla Sapienza
337 S
337 Salmur (Saumur) Library of Philippus Monoreus, destroyed by soldiers 1621
337 Saragossa Order of Saint Jerome, library
337 Sevilia (Seville) Ferdinand Colon’s library, came to the Dominican monastery
337 Sicilien (Sicily) Library in King Rupert’s times (1352-1410)
337 Smyrna Temple with library
337 Schweitz (Switzerland) Libraries at the schools and colleges at Basel, berne, Lausanne, Zuerich, Friburg etc.
338 Schottland (Scotland) Universities St. Andrews, Glasgow, Aberdeen with libraries
339 Stockholm Royal library; libraries of Anckerstirn, Palmschiold, Sinoilsky, Sparwenfeld, Claudius Rolamb; universities of Grypswald (Greifswald) and Academy of Stetin, both with libraries, came to Prussia in 1720; gymnasia at Riga and Reval with libraries went to Russia; university at Lunden with library; university at Upsal with library; library of Visby destroyed.
341 Spanien (Spain) Libraries at the following places: universities and colleges at Salamanca, the Complutense, at Alcala de Henares, Toledo, Granada, Valencia, Sevilla, Valladolit, Ossuna, Huesca, Palencia, Saragossa, Siguenca, Lerida, Barcellona, Tarragona; about 100 Jesuit colleges with libraries; Royal library at Escurial; libraries Ben Aria Montani, Antonius Augustinus; Michaelis Augustinus; library of the archbishop of Toledo Franciscus Ximenis at Alcala de Henares; Ferdinand Colon’s library in Seville; library of the order of Saint Jerome in Saragossa; library of Jacobus de Mendoza, went to the Escurial; library of Don Diego Hurtado de Mendoza; libraries of the bishop of Avila, Alfons
344 Stetin and ((Szczecin (Poland)) Royal gymnasium, library
344 Stralsund Gymnasium Publicum, library
345 Straßburg (Strasbourg) University library; library of the theologian Geilerus merged into the university library
345 T
345 Tarragona Library of archbishop Antonius Augustinus merged into Escurial library
345 Teutschland (Germany) 15 Lutheran universities: Altdorff, Erfurt, Giessen, Grypswald, Halle, Helmstaedt, Jena, Kiel, Koenigsberg, Leipzig, Rostock, Rinteln, Straßburg, Tuebingen, Wittenberg;10 pontifical universities:Breßlau, Coeln, Dillingen, Friburg, Ingolstadt, Mayntz, Moltzheim, Paderborn, Wien, Wuerzburg;4 reformed or Calvinist universities:Duysburg, Franckfurt on Oder, Heidelberg, Marpurg;each with libraries;not to count the gymnasia and colleges
348 Thorn Libraries of Lutherans, Catholics and Calvinists
348 Tirnau University library
349 Tunis Library
349 Tuebingen (Tübingen) Library
349 Turin Duke of Savoy’s library
349 U
349 Upsal (Uppsala) University library at Collegio Gustaviano
350 Utrecht University library
352 Venedig (Venice) Library of the Republic; libraries in the monasteries of S. Giovanni, S. Paolo, S. Giorgio etc.; library of S. Giorgio Maggiore; private libraries: Augustus Amadeus, Ludovicus and Marcus Antonius Mocenigo, Daniel Barbarus, Ludovicus Balbus, Jacobus Contarenus, Rochus Contarenus, Johannes Delphinus, Sebastian Ericus, Andreas Lauredanus, Ludovicus Lolinus, Jacobus Marcellus, Aldus Manutius, Ludovicus Malepetra, Ludovicus Michael; Hieronymus de Mula, Paulus Paruta, Franciscus Solantius, Franciscus Travaghinus, Josephus Zartini etc.; library of Picus Mirandula changed the name to Augustinian library; library S. Dominicus
352 Veuchung (Wuchang (China)) Royal library
352 Vilna (Vilnius (Lithuania)) Castle libraries
352 VV
352 Weimar Princely library
353 VVisby (Visby) Library (lost)
353 Wismar Mr Mevius’ library
353 Wien (Vienna) Imperial library
356 Wittenberg Library came to Jena
356 Wolfenbuettel (Wolfenbüttel) Ducal library
358 Wuertzburg (Würzburg) University library went to Upsala in 1631
358 Y
358 Yorck Archbishop Egbertus founded a library in 750 AD
358 Z
358 Zeitz Ducal library; monastery library
359 Zwickau Library, into which merged the private library of Daumius
359 Zweybrecken (Zweibrücken) Library burnt, rests taken to Metz
359 Zuerich (Zürich) Public town library; Caroline College library; private libraries of Hottinger, Schwitzer, Zeller, Hospinianus



6.6 Kanold’s additions to chapter 3 (Libraries)




Page no. Name of Entry Mentioned Collections
382 Altdorff (Altdorf) University library
383 Berlin Royal library with Bible collection; Spanheim library; Library of the Society of Sciences
384 Bukerest (Bucarest) Library of Prince Maurocordati de Scarlati
384 Coppenhagen (Copenhagen) Public libraries: Bibliotheca Waldendorffiana; B. Borrichiana; B. Müleniana; B. Reseniana; B. Brochmanniana; B. Fureniana; B. Christiani IV. Beatae memoriae; B. Friderici VI; Olaus Borrichius’ Collegio Medico with Catalogue
389 Erfurt Ministerialbibliothek; University library with Duke von Boineburg’s library; Dominican monks’ library with Duchess von Gleichen’s library. Reprint of Catalog of Bibliotheca Boineburgica (1723)
394 Franckfurt am Mayn (Frankfurt (Main)) Town library; Zacharias Conrad von Uffenbach’s library; Loenisch library; protestant minister Joh. Michael Geiß’s library
394 Freyberg in Meissen (Freiberg) School library; bibliothecam mineralium of Berg-Hauptmann von T.
395 Halle im Magdeburgischen (Halle) Town council library; Academia Fridericiana; orphanage library with library of von Canstein
396 Herrmsdorff (Hermsdorf) Count Johann Anton von Schaffgotsch’s library with naturalia and other curiosities
396 Herrmanstadt (Sibiu (Romania)) Library of the protestant Gymnasium
397 Hures in der Wallachey (Monastery Hures (Wallachia) Prince Constantin’s library
397 Heilbrunn (Heilbronn) Town library
397 Jena Town library (with catalogue of rare books)
402 Koenigsberg (Kaliningrad) Town council library with private libraries
403 Lignitz (Legnica (Poland)) Castle has St. Johannis-library in its depot
404 Probsthayn (Probsthain) Former Georgius Brisen’s library included in church library
404 Weimar Princely library at Weimar, includes libraries of Baron von Logau and Schurtzfleisch.
405 Zelle (Celle) Baron von Wrisberg’s library


[1] I thank Paul Michel (Zürich) for many discussions about Encyclopedias, without which this article and the planned project of mapping out Kanold’s and Jencquel’s information on curiosity cabinets and libraries in Europe were not thinkable. See for more information (checked on June 2, 2014)